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Capital of Armenia — historical Azerbaijan city

Guram Markulia
2 iyun 2011 - 1 oktyabr 2011-ci il

     Armenian legends ascribe foundation of Erevan to Noah, deriving the name of the city from exclamation ‘Erevants’ (meaning ‘It showed up’) ostensibly made by Noah when the top of the Ararat mountain arose from the water. It’s considered an example of so called people’s etymology, thereby, according to Armenian legends of late 19th century Erevan is the first and therefore the most ancient town in the earth after the Deluge. In addition to that, Noah was an Armenian origin and by exclaiming ‘Erevants’ Noah accidentally exposed his nationality. By this way, Armenians forged own false history and culture depicting it as a chronicles of ‘ancient Armenian empire’.

    Deliberate attempts made by Armenian historians to counterfeit emergence of the Erevan were not successful until 1950. In 1950 Soviet-Armenian archaeologists found a stone flag at the foot of the Arin-Berd hill, according to which Erebuni (nowadays close to Erevan) was found by the king of Urartu Argishti I.

    Decoded inscription alleged that castle of Erebuni was founded in 782 BC. Whole Armenia was rejoicing over finding and it served as the basis for Armenian leadership to observe 2750th anniversary of Erevan in 1968. Since then, each year on 10th October political and historical show is being organised dedicated to the foundation of Erevan.

    Despite only three letters “PBH” (there were no vowels in ancient times) were mentioned on an inscription it was immediately decoded as Erebuni. Besides, there was no any mentioning in respect of geographical location of the town under the name of “P?H”.

    However, it’s not clear what a relation Urartu has to Armenia. By that time Armenians were in search of their historical motherland and did not dwell in Caucasus.

    Referring to the aforementioned strange story researcher Shnirelman wrote: “Despite all there was no direct link between archaeological finding and celebrations (in Soviet Armenia) which took place later. In fact, vivid festivities were organised by Armenian authorities and not by archaeologist. ... What a linkage between capital of Armenia and Urartuan castle alleged relations of which with Armenians need to be proved? To answer questions put above is not going to be difficult for someone familiar with modern history of Armenia.”

    That means, had not there been wrongly decoded archaeological finding then Armenians would never know that their ‘native’ Erevan is 2800 years old.

    In reality, according to historical facts Iravan was founded at the beginning of 16th century as a forward base by Shah Ismail of Azerbaijani Safafid Empire along the border with Ottoman Empire. In order to prevent advancements of adversary troops towards the East, Shah Ismail I in 1515 ordered to construct a castle next to the River Zengi. Revan-Khuli Khan was entrusted with the task. Name of the castle Revan-kala (meaning Revan’s castle) originates from his name and consequently became Revan and then Irevan.

    Later, during the decline of Safafid Empire (middle of the 18th century) more than 20 independent Azeri Khanates (territory ruled by a khan) came to existence. One of them was Iravan Khanate, which lasted until the Russian invasion of the region and the capture of Iravan at the beginning of the 19th century.

    Immediately, after Turkmenchay Treaty (between Russia and Iran) Czar Nicolai I issued a degree on 21 March 1828 according to which “Armenian oblast” was created consisting lands of Iravan and Nakhichevan khanates and at the time of inclusion population of the Iravan City comprised 7331 Azeris and 2369 Armenians.

    Since Azerbaijan’s occupation in 1828, Armenians were resettled from Iran totalled 50,000 and from Turkey totalled 90,000 in Azerbaijani lands — the khanates of Irevan (now Yerevan), Karabakh and Nakhchivan.

    Russian envoy A. Griboedov noted “It’s necessary to resettle Armenians from the regions occupied by Russian Army that are Tebriz, Khoy, Salmas, Maragha to Nakhichevan, Yerevan and Karabakh” in 1828. Writer N. Shavrov also wrote “To date 1 million out of 1 million and 300 thousand Armenian people of Transcaucasia are not aboriginal inhabitants” in 1911.

    At the end of the 19th century, Iravan province was the third largest province in respect of number of Azeri population after Baku and Yelizavetpol (Russian imposed name for the second largest city in Azerbaijan — Gandja) provinces. According to the first census conducted in Russian empire in 1897, number of the Azeri living in Iravan province was 313,178. Subsequent events of the beginning of the 20th century revealed altogether that this was the only cause in continuation of historical sufferings of the Azerbaijani people.

    In another instance, between 1886-1897 total population increase was 40,000, at the same time growth during 1905-1916 was only 17,000 despite population increase in 1905 in comparison to 1886 was more than 61,000. These outrageous facts indicate on jingoistic policy undertaken by Armenian nationalist during the reign of Tsarist Russia and are indicative of realization of concrete plans directed at expelling Azeri from historical lands and creation of “Armenia without Turks”, as they call the Azeri.

    Taking an opportunity of the situation in Russia after World War I and 1917 October revolution, Armenians started to fulfil their plans under the banner of Bolshevism. Under the counter-revolution slogan, Baku Commune comprising many Armenians in March 1918, started realisation of their criminal act with the aim of extermination of the Azeri throughout Iravan province.

    Crimes committed by the Armenians at that time have been imprinted in the memory of the Azeri population. Nationality was only reason to annihilate thousands of peaceable Azeri. They set fire on houses, burned people alive. Architectural treasures, schools, hospitals and mosques all were ruined.

    In 1918-1920, during the mass extermination out of 575,000 Azeri living in the territory of contemporary Armenia 565,000 were either murdered or expelled. These facts are even proven by Armenian sources: “When Dashnags (nationalistic movement) were overthrown in 1920 the number of Azeri population in Soviet Armenia did not exceed 10,000. In 1922 after return of 60,000 Azeri refugees population reached 72,596.”

    During Soviet era, Armenians continued their traditional way of expelling the Azeri from Armenian SSR and extension of their lands at the expense of the neighbours. For this purpose Armenians living both in Armenia and abroad have been showing conformity of actions which was an indication of the existence of absurd idea of “Great Armenia”.

    Taking advantage of Tehran Conference in 1943 Armenian Diasporas appealed to B. Molotov Minister of Foreign Affairs USSR to allow resettlement of Iranian Armenians to Soviet Armenia. Stalin’s approval on the issue in fact laid foundations of 1948-1953 mass deportation of Azeri from Armenia.

    In 1945, Armenian leadership raised the issue concerning annexation of Nagorno-Karabakh to Armenia substantiating it with economical reasons but failed. Afterward, they chose another tactic.

    Immediately after the end of World War II, resettlement process of Armenians from abroad started. In 1946, 50,900 people were relocated to Armenia from Syria, Greece, Lebanon, Iran, Bulgaria and Romania. In 1947 35,400 from Palestine, Syria, France, USA, Greece, Egypt, Iraq and Lebanon were relocated. In 1947 First Secretary of Central Committee of Armenia referring to the difficulties of the settlement of relocated people proposed a cynical idea meant to relocate Azeri to cotton cultivating areas of Azerbaijan ostensibly to increase labor production.

    According to archives the number of deported Azeri in 1948 were 2,357 families (11,046 people), in 1949 - 2368 families (10,595 people), in 1950 - 14,361 people. Out of 8,110 families only 4878 were provided housing. In total, 100,000 Azeri were deported between 1948 and 1952. Used to live in mountainous areas and not provided with housing, people could barely survive harsh climate of low lands and many of them starved to death.

    Even in such conditions, multiple appeals made by relocated people and Azerbaijani leadership to Moscow authorities to allow them to settle in mountain region, including Karabakh were categorically refused. That is another instance of voluntary relocation of people in the name of cotton productivity; in fact a blanket term that stood for inhumanity and criminal negligence to human destiny.

    Armenia, with its policy of survival, actually became a single nation state and the Dashnag’s idea of “Armenia without Azeri” became reality.

    As it is stated by the makers of Armenian history, in former times Iravan, nowadays Erevan is the “twelfth capital of Armenia”. On October 10, 2010 Armenian ignoramus observed the 2792th anniversary of Erevan. Despite its ancient age one wouldn’t call it an ‘oldster’ because, in reality, even the oldest Armenian city has no history more than 100 years. After all said, let ask ourselves: Do Armenians have the right to call Erevan, the final “capital of Armenia?”

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